Federal Movement

   (1961-1962)
   A movement organized by leaders of the ethnic minorities, especially the Shans (Tai), to amend the Constitution of 1947 to make it more genuinely federal in character. In Shan State, support for the movement was inspired not only by shortcomings in the constitution but also by the harsh treatment local populations received at the hands of the Tatmadaw following the Kuomintang (Guomindang) intrusions of the early 1950s. The principal leader of the movement was Sao Shwe Taik, who had been Burma's president from 1948 to 1952.
   In January 1961, 33 Shan leaders met at the state capital, Taunggyi, and formed a Constitutional Revision Steering Committee. On June 8-16, 1961, a Constitutional Conference was held in the same city, attended by 226 delegates, including not only Shan but Karen, Kachin, and Chin representatives. Their proposals included reconstruction of the Union of Burma as a group of "co-equal" states; making Burma Proper a single state, separate from the central (federal) government; giving the two chambers of Parliament equal powers, so that the Chamber of Nationalities could better serve ethnic minority state interests; and the establishment of stronger and more autonomous state governments. Prime Minister U Nu was receptive to their proposals and invited ethnic minority leaders to a "Federal Seminar" in Rangoon (Yangon) in February 1962. While the talks were underway, General Ne Win seized power on March 2, 1962, and closed down parliamentary government. U Nu and ethnic leaders, including Sao Shwe Taik, were imprisoned. Brigadier Aung Gyi, a member of the original Revolutionary Council, stated that "we had economic, religious and political crises with the issue of federalism as the most important reason for the coup." Undoubtedly, stronger state governments in the ethnic areas, a key federal proposal, would have challenged the Tatmadaw's growing appetite for power. FORCE 136. The Far Eastern branch of the British Special Operations Executive (SOE). Its mission in Burma and other parts of Southeast Asia was to organize local resistance against the Japanese during World War II. Largely through the work of Major Hugh Seagrim, it organized Karen (Kayin) guerrillas in the hill country east of the Sittang (Sittoung) River; and, with the cooperation of Communist Party of Burma operatives, especially Thein Pe Myint, made contact with the underground Anti-Fascist Organization among the Burmans (Bamars). Force 136 made extensive use of "Jedburgh Teams," consisting of two British officers and a wireless operator who were parachuted behind enemy lines. The effectiveness of Karen guerrillas during the 1945 Allied thrust into Burma and the uprising of the Burma National Army against the Japanese on March 27 were vindications of Force 136's underground activities, which were regarded with some skepticism by other elements of the British government and army.
   See also Armed Forces Day; Aung San; Japanese Occupation.

Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Movement for Change — Bzutinewey‌ Gorran بزوتنه‌وه‌ی‌ گۆڕان Leader Nawshirwan Mustafa Founded 2009 …   Wikipedia

  • Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857 — Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States Original front of the 1857 Constitution Created 1856–1857 …   Wikipedia

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation — FBI Staatliche Ebene Bundesbehörde der Vereinigten Staaten Stellung der Behörde Bundespolizeiliche Ermittlu …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Federal University of Ceará — [http://www.lamotriz.dee.ufc.br/pdfs/artigo%5B9%5D.pdf] (UFC, Portuguese: Universidade Federal do Ceará) is a federal university with campuses in the cities of Fortaleza, Sobral and Barbalha, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. UFC is a public and… …   Wikipedia

  • Federal Vision — The Federal Vision (also called Auburn Avenue Theology) is a Reformed Evangelical theological position that focuses on covenant theology, trinitarian thinking, the sacraments of Baptism and Communion, biblical theology and typology, justification …   Wikipedia

  • Federal North of Jujuy — The Federal North of Jujuy (Spanish: Norte Federal de Jujuy) is a provincial political party in Jujuy Province, Argentina.[citation needed] It is a member of the national Recrear electoral alliance led by Ricardo López Murphy …   Wikipedia

  • Movement for Socialism (Argentina) — Not to be confused with Movement for Socialism – Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples, Movement for Socialism (Venezuela), or Movement for Socialism (Britain). The Movement for Socialism (Spanish: Movimiento Al Socialismo, MAS) …   Wikipedia

  • Federal Reserve System — FRB and FED redirect here. For other uses, see FRB (disambiguation) and FED (disambiguation). Federal Reserve System …   Wikipedia

  • Movement for a New Country — For the radio format, see Country music. The Movement for a New Country (Spanish: Movimiento para un Nuevo País) is a political party in Argentina founded by Élida Vigo and made up of left wingers and dissident peronists in Misiones Province. The …   Wikipedia

  • Movement to impeach George W. Bush — The movement to impeach George W. Bush is a series of actions and commentary within the public and private spheres voicing support for the impeachment of United States President George W. Bush. The phrase is also used in a broader sense to refer… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.